Public City Transport IV
After World War II, as the rural population transferred to the big cities, two currents were established in connection with the problems related to the use of public transports (PT) and private vehicles. One favored the primacy of swift public transports as the mobility of the future and restrictions on the use of private vehicles (PV) in the central areas of the cities. The second favored the construction of motorways and express ways, underlining the advantages (in terms of comfort, flexibility and personalization) of PV over PT and the superior adaptation and profitability of automobiles to the multinuclear cities in the metropolitan areas. This resulted in the creation of the LSG, in Lisboa and of the PPSG, in Porto.
The increasing level of motorization in the big cities led to the adoption of traffic management measures involving the promotion of PT, use of priority lanes (“bus” lanes), traffic lights with associated telematic systems, implementation of express bus routes, definition of criteria for setting up PT stops according to the origin and destination of traffic flows, car parking solutions and creation of parking areas in the peripheries. As a complement, tariff measures for PV circulation in the city centers were also adopted.
At the end of the 70s, 38 municipalities in Portugal were served by urban transports, primarily Lisboa and Porto that accounted for 85% of the traffic and a significant weight in terms of suburban transports.
These two metropolitan areas, which have a very high migratory attractiveness, ended up having exponential demographic growth rates in their urban fringes (dwelling/dormitory), over central, unpopulated areas occupied by Service related economic activities , causing traffic congestion, occupation of the territory with changes in the use of the land for dwellings located increasingly further away from the centers and the establishment of commuter traffic (with traffic peaks), which develop into a drain on infra–structures, equipment and car-fleets which profitability was only sub-optimal.
In 1975, the Ministry of Labour, Transports and Communication and the Ministry of Industry and Technology promoted the establishment of a work group that should submit proposals on the diversification of working hours in the large cities, restrictions on circulation and parking of private vehicles and encourage public transports.
Later, through the order of 20/07/75 issued by the Secretary of State for Transports and Communication, a team of experts was appointed to assist the previously mentioned work group, after which a set of measures was determined, with emphasis to the creation of express routes, schedule changes, creation of bus lanes , construction of interfaces, signage giving priority to public transports, purchase of rolling stock, introduction of passes, among which the ‘social passes’ stand out , and also the reduction of the tariff range, parking control and separation of traffic flows.
With the aim of studying and implementing adequate measures, the DGTT drafted Transport Plans for the regions of Lisbon and Porto. Thus the GEL was created in Lisbon while the PPSG was created in Porto. Both groups were supported by experts in the field of transports , under a technical assistance program set up with the Helvetic Confederation.
This period was also marked by transversal strikes in the urban transports sector, with the consequent appearance of ‘alternative transports’.
Technical DetailsIssue Date: 24.03.2010
Designer: Atelier Acacio Santos / Helder Soares
Printer: INCM / WALSALL
Size: 25 x 30 mm, 30,6 x 27,7 mm
Values: ?2,28, ?3,29